When Grandpa Was A Boy, Were There Any Dinosaurs?

When Grandpa Was a Boy, Were There Any Dinosaurs?

A Popular History of the 20th Century

“Tha’s Niver Done A Day’s Hard Work In Thy Life”

1911: D.H. Lawrence’s first novel, The White Peacock, was published at the beginning of the year. Lawrence showed it to his parents, hoping they would approve.

His father, a coalminer, “struggled through half a page, and it might as well have been Hottentot.

“ ‘And what dun they gi’e thee for that, lad?’

“ ‘Fifty pounds, father.’

“ ‘Fifty pounds!’ He was dumbfounded, and looked at me with shrewd eyes, as if I were a swindler. ‘Fifty pounds! An’ tha’s niver done a day’s hard work in thy life.’ ”

Source: D.H. Lawrence, Phoenix: The Posthumous Papers of D.H. Lawrence, ed. Edward D. McDonald (1936), p. 232

Bottom Of The Class

Prince Albert, the future George VI (centre front), photographed in 1908 with his elder brother, Prince Edward, the future Edward VIII (centre rear), their father, Prince George, the future George V (left), and their grandfather, the reigning British monarch, Edward VII (right)

1910: “You don’t seem to take your work seriously, nor do you appear to be very keen about it. My dear boy this will not do.” The exasperated parent was George V; the underperforming son was Prince Albert, the future George VI, a cadet at Osborne naval college. The royal hand-wringing had no effect, and in final exams in December, Bertie came 68th out of 68.

Source: Sarah Bradford, King George VI (1989), p. 45

Elementary Education

1909: Beginning at the age of 15, Nikita Khrushchev attended the local school for two winters. The education was rudimentary: reading, writing, arithmetic and religion. “After a year or two I had learnt to count up to thirty and my father decided that was enough of schooling. He said all I needed was to be able to count money and I could never have more than thirty roubles to count.”

Source: George Paloczi-Horvath, Khrushchev: The Road to Power (1960), pp. 12–13

Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 – a politician rather than a mathematician

Halibut Or War?

Prime minister and culinary expert Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman

1908: On one occasion during his premiership, an illustrated newspaper carried a sketch of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman in conversation with Edward VII. The king was depicted speaking earnestly, the prime minister listening gravely. “Is it Peace or War?” the paper shrilled. In fact, as Campbell-Bannerman later revealed, “He wanted to have my opinion whether halibut was better baked or boiled!”

Source: John Wilson, CB: A Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1973), p. 145

Vociferous Critic

1907: Arnold Schönberg’s String Quartet No. 1 was first performed at the Bösendorfersaal in Vienna on 5 February. The concert was marred by a member of the audience hissing at the composer. Schönberg’s friend Gustav Mahler remonstrated with the man and they almost came to blows. As the man was hustled away, he shouted, “I hiss at Mahler too!”

Source: Henry-Louis de la Grange, Gustav Mahler, 3 : Vienna : Triumph and Disillusion (1904–1907) (1999),
pp. 607–9

Portrait of Arnold Schönberg, by Egon Schiele

Piano Man

1906: Daisy Ellington sent her 7-year-old son, Edward, to begin piano lessons; “Duke” Ellington’s first teacher was the appropriately named Marietta Clinkscales.

Source: David Bradbury, Duke Ellington (2005), p. 3

Overwhelming Vote

1905: In a plebiscite held on 13 August, Norwegians voted to dissolve the country’s union with neighbouring Sweden. A total of 368,208 men – women were excluded – voted in favour of the dissolution; 184 voted against.

Source: www.nb.no/baser/1905/tema_
folk_e.html

Going Green

1903: Renewable energy was a concept whose time had not yet come, but this was the year that the terms “solar heating” and “wind power” entered the English language.

Source: John Ayto, Twentieth Century Words (1999), pp. 49, 59

Expendable Animals

1902: At the end of the Boer War, a British Royal Commission calculated that 400,346 horses, mules and donkeys had died during the 2½ years of fighting. Or as the War Office put it, had been “expended”.

Source: Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War (1979), p. 607

A Death Foretold

1901: The murder of U.S. President William McKinley was a death foretold. The inhabitants of Leslie County, in Kentucky, believed that spiders had prophesied the president’s death by writing his name in their webs.

Source: Daniel Lindsey Thomas and Lucy Blayney Thomas, Kentucky Superstitions (1920), p. 277

U.S. President William McKinley

“Exterminate All The Brutes!”

1900: “To yield to the parent state the rightly expected profits” from its colonies, wrote Henry Morris, the native population “should be amenable to discipline, to regular forms of government, to reformed methods of life”. And if not? “The natives must then be exterminated or reduced to such numbers as to be readily controlled.”

Source: Henry C. Morris, The History of Colonization from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (1900), vol. I, pp. 20–1

“Amenable to discipline”: in the Congo Free State in 1904 a father contemplates his 5-year-old daughter’s hand and foot, severed by soldiers as a punishment

Millennium Candles

1999: As the year 2000 approached, computer experts warned of the havoc that could be expected from the millennium bug. Inordinate sums were spent to make computers, in the current jargon, “Y2K compliant”. In retrospect, it appears ridiculous and slightly embarrassing, but at the time, fears of widespread dislocation of the world’s computer systems seemed plausible enough.

At the end of December, rumours spread in the Philippines that not only would electronic devices be affected, but even candles and matches. Exactly how this would happen wasn’t clear. Fortunately, getting them blessed by a priest would make them Y2K compliant.

Source: Far Eastern Economic Review, 13 January 2000

Nuclear Test Ban

1998: Britain’s Nuclear Explosions (Prohibition and Inspections) Act 1998 made it illegal to cause a nuclear explosion:

“Any person who knowingly causes a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for life.”

Source: www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/
1998/7/pdfs/ukpga_19980007_en.pdf

KGB Loses Luggage

1997: President Boris Yeltsin’s security adviser, General Alexander Lebed, admitted that Russia was unable to account for 84 out of 132 KGB nuclear “suitcase bombs”.

Source: Graham Allison, Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe (2004), pp. 9–10

Local Hero

Nobel prizewinner Seamus Heaney, photographed by Sean O’Connor

1995: The Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to the poet Seamus Heaney. The Irish Farmers Journal ran the story under a proud “Local Boy Makes Good” headline:
Bellaghy celebrates as farmer’s
son wins top literary award

Source: Irish Farmers Journal, 14 October 1995

Rules Of The Game

1994: The rules of the Shell Caribbean Cup football competition produced the ludicrous situation, towards the end of the match between Barbados and Grenada, of the Barbadians deliberately scoring an own goal to tie the game, followed by the Grenadians trying to score at both ends of the pitch, and the Barbadians defending their opponents’ goal as well as their own.

Source: Simon Gardiner et al., Sports Law (2006), pp. 73–4

Perpetual Motion Cat

1993: Cats always fall on their feet.

Toast always lands buttered side down.

So if a slice of buttered toast were strapped to a cat’s back and the cat dropped from height, would the cat land on its feet or on its buttered back?

John Frazee, who submitted this conundrum to the magazine Omni, suggested that the unfortunate feline would hover, spinning, just above the ground. The buttered cat would, in fact, be a perpetual motion device.

Source: Omni, July 1993

Explanatory figures by Greg Williams

Help From On High

U.S. President George H.W. Bush

1992: “Communism died this year,” proclaimed George Bush in his State of the Union address. One month earlier, the Soviet Union had formally ceased to exist. “By the grace of God,” the president told Congress, “America won the Cold War.”

Source: http://millercenter.org/president/
speeches/speech-5531

“The Wrong Kind of Snow”

1991: British Rail regretted to announce, on 11 February, that very cold weather would continue to cause delays and cancellations of commuter services around London for several more days. It wasn’t the amount of snow, explained a BR spokesman, so much as its nature – very dry and fine enough to penetrate the air intakes of trains and to short-circuit their motors.

The spokesman didn’t actually say “the wrong kind of snow,” but newspaper headline writers knew a good paraphrase when they coined one, so the expression stuck.

Source: Terry Gourvish, British Rail 1974–97: From Integration to Privatisation (2002), pp. 274, 613

Snow on the tracks, photographed by Likelife

Common Enemy

1990: Following the murder of Liberian President Samuel Doe in September, Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia tightened its grip around the capital, Monrovia. The NPFL set up checkpoints in the countryside, some adorned with human skulls, some with sinister nicknames, such as No Return.

Doe’s Krahn tribe were renowned monkey hunters. At the God Bless You gate, NPFL fighters enlisted a monkey that could supposedly recognize their common enemy – Krahn tribesmen. Anyone fingered by the monkey was killed on the spot.

Source: Stephen Ellis, The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of an African Civil War (1999), pp. 89, 116

The End Was Nigh

1989: Whew! That was close! An asteroid measuring an estimated 300 metres across, travelling at 74,000 km/h, came within six hours of slamming into the Earth. The asteroid, named Asclepius, crossed Earth’s orbit and passed within 650,000 kilometres of the planet. A collision with an object of that size, moving at that speed, would have seriously rattled the crockery.

Source: Gerrit L. Verschuur, Impact!: The Threat of Comets and Asteroids (1996), p. 116

Smelly Armpits

1988: Geruchsproben, or smell samples, provided the German Democratic Republic’s secret police with a highly personal way of keeping tabs on citizens.

Based on a theory that everyone possessed a separate, identifiable odour and left traces of that odour on everything that he or she touched, the Stasi built up an extensive collection of smell samples.

Surreptitiously collected garments or pieces of fabric bearing individual odours could then be matched, using trained sniffer dogs, against smells found (for example) at the scene of an illegal meeting.

Source: Anna Funder, Stasiland: Stories From Behind the Berlin Wall (2004), p. 8

American Amnesia

1985: Ten years after the fall of Saigon, a poll in The New York Times revealed that only three out of five Americans could identify South Vietnam as America’s wartime ally.

Source: The New York Times, 31 March 1985

Midair Emergency — We’re Out Of Fuel

Air Canada Boeing 767 on the ground at Gimli air force base after its unscheduled landing

1983: The “Gimli glider” was the nickname given to an Air Canada Boeing 767 that made a forced landing at Gimli, in Manitoba, after running out of fuel in midair.

On 23 July, halfway between Montreal and Edmonton, one of the engines of Flight 143 lost power, and shortly after, the other. The pilot put the airliner into a glide and headed for the disused air force base at Gimli.

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Burning Babies

1982: At the Barbir hospital in western Beirut, medical staff treated casualties from the Israeli Army bombardment of Palestinian camps. Some had been hit by phosphorus shells, including 12 members from the same family.

Two 5-day-old twins had already died, but when they were brought into the emergency room, they were still on fire. “I had to take the babies and put them in buckets of water to put out the flames,” Amal Shamaa said. “When I took them out half an hour later, they were still burning. Even in the mortuary, they smouldered for several hours.”

Next morning, when Dr. Shamaa took the corpses out of the mortuary for burial, they again burst into flames.

Source: Robert Fisk, Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War (1990), pp. 282–3