When Grandpa Was A Boy, Were There Any Dinosaurs?

Category archive: 1990s

Turned Out Nice

1997: No one wants it to rain on their parade. To make sure that wet weather didn’t spoil Moscow’s 850th anniversary pageant, the city’s mayor, Yuri Luzhkov, sent up aircraft to seed approaching clouds with silver iodide as a way of encouraging them to shed their rain before they reached the celebrations.

Source: Gavin Pretor-Pinney, The Cloudspotter’s Guide (2006), p. 270

Birth Of BackRub

Q: What began life at Stanford University in 1996 as a student research project with the nickname “BackRub”?
A: The Internet search engine Google.

Source: John Battelle, The Search: How Google and Its Rivals Rewrote the Rules of Business and Transformed Our Culture (2005), pp. 72–6

Pedal Power

1995: At the beginning of the century, the world land speed record, set by the Belgian racer Camille Jenatzy in 1899 in an electric-powered car, stood at 105.88 km/h. By the end of the century, bicycles were travelling faster than that. Much faster. On 3 October 1995, at the Bonneville Salt Flats, in Utah, the Dutch cyclist Fred Rompelberg, pedalling in the slipstream of a dragster, set a world bicycle speed record of 268.831 km/h.

Source: www.lepetitbraquet.fr/chron38_
fred_rompelberg.html

Vaccines Save Lives

1993: Deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States: diphtheria, 156 in 1953 and none in 1993; whooping cough, 270 in 1953 and one in 1993; tetanus, 337 in 1953 and 11 in 1993; paralytic polio, 1,450 in 1953 and none in 1993.

Source: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/
pinkbook/downloads/appendices/e/
reported-cases.pdf

Corrigendum

1992: The Times of India report on 29 April 1966 that Balasaheb Patloji Thorat, from Maharashtra, had won a lawsuit that had dragged on for centuries was incorrect. The dispute had a long history, but a civil suit had only been filed on 8 April 1964. The lawsuit had lasted just over two years, not 761 years.

Source: The Times of India, 18 February 1992

Alphabet Soup

1991: In the space of 70 years, Azerbaijanis had to cope with three major changes to their alphabet, plus a handful of minor alterations. From 1923, the centuries-old Arabic script was replaced by a Latin script; in 1939, Stalin imposed a Cyrillic script; and in 1991, the newly independent state reverted to a Latin script. Azerbaijanis barely had time to become literate in one before they had to learn another.

Source: Azerbaijan International, Spring 2000

Population Boom

1990: Between the end of the Second World War and 1990 the world’s population soared by almost 3 billion. The medical journal The Lancet illustrated the scale of this increase with an analogy: if an atomic bomb with the killing capacity of the one that obliterated Hiroshima had been dropped every day since 6 August 1945, it would have failed to keep pace with the runaway growth in human numbers.

Source: The Lancet, 15 September 1990

Sporting Casualties

1999: Although the crunching collisions of American football are absent from soccer, the game is not without its perils. Between 1979 and 1999, 18 children died and 14 were seriously injured in the United States when movable soccer goals fell on them.

Source: Simon P.R. Jenkins, Sports Science Handbook: The Essential Guide to Kinesiology, Sport and Exercise Science (2005), vol. 1, p. 140

Bee Gone

Short-haired bumble bee, photographed by Martin Andersson

1998: The Daily Telegraph lamented the demise of the short-haired bumble bee, which “is, or was, one of 21 species of bumble bee in Britain”. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, Bombus subterraneus was the 154th species to become extinct in Britain during the 20th century.

Source: The Daily Telegraph, 14 December 1998

Record Breaker

Jeanne Calment in 1895, aged 20

1997: Frenchwoman Jeanne Calment died on 4 August at the age of 122 years and 164 days – the longest confirmed lifespan, by a considerable margin, of any human in history. At the age of 100 she still cycled around her hometown of Arles, she was almost 110 before she needed to move into a retirement home, and she didn’t quit smoking until her 117th year.

Source: Michel Allard, Victor Lèbre and Jean-Marie Robine, Jeanne Calment: From Van Gogh’s Time to Ours, 122 Extraordinary Years (1998), pp. 73, 119

Final Reward

1996: William Vickrey had little time to savour the plaudits after he won the Nobel Prize in economics. The Columbia University professor was notified of the joint award on 8 October. He spent the next three days busily fielding phone calls, giving radio interviews and appearing on television, and then died of a heart attack on 11 October.

Source: The New York Times, 12 October 1996

Hold The Line

1995: Miguel Rodríguez Orejuela, the Cali drug cartel’s godfather of godfathers, was a busy man, so if you phoned him, the chances were, you’d be put on hold. While you waited, the hold music was Scott Joplin’s ragtime theme from the film The Sting.

Source: William C. Rempel, At the Devil’s Table: The Untold Story of the Insider Who Brought Down the Cali Cartel (2011), pp. 209–10

Medical Progress

1994: The progress made in reducing childhood mortality in the world’s most advanced economies was strikingly illustrated in Sweden: not a single 8-year-old girl died during 1994 – there were 112,521 at the beginning of the year and they were all still alive at the end of the year.

Source: Armand Marie Leroi, Mutants: On the Form, Varieties and Errors of the Human Body (2003), p. 329

Dead Language

1992: Ubykh, from the eastern end of the Black Sea, was one of hundreds of languages that disappeared during the century. Linguists were fascinated by Ubykh’s multitude of consonants and almost total absence of vowels. It was reckoned to have about 84 consonants and two or three vowels – the exact numbers were a matter for debate. Tevfik Esenç, who died on 7 October, was the last native speaker of Ubykh; his death marked not just the passing of an individual human being, but the extinction of a language.

Source: http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/
article-file/305216

Sleepyhead

1991: Vicki Childress, from Key West in Florida, kept two items beneath her pillow: an inhaler in case she had an asthma attack, and a .38 revolver to protect against intruders. Just before midnight on 21 October, she needed her inhaler. Half-asleep, she reached under her pillow. You can guess what happened next. The following day she was in hospital recovering well, but with several shattered teeth.

Source: Tampa Bay Times, 23 October 1991

At Long Last

1990: The retired Iowa farmer Charles Osborne finally stopped hiccuping, more than six decades after he had started. The hiccups had begun one day in 1922, when Osborne had been hanging up a hog for butchering. “I picked it up and then I fell down. I felt nothing, but the doctor said later that I busted a blood vessel the size of a pin in my brain.” Once the hiccups started, they wouldn’t stop. For the next 68 years, Osborne hiccuped 20 or even 40 times a minute – several hundred million hiccups altogether.

Source: http://people.com/archive/a-
cure-for-hiccups-retired-farmer-charles-
osborne-isnt-holding-his-breath-hes-
had-them-for-60-years-vol-17-no-12/

Lightning Strike

1998: The Kinshasa newspaper L’Avenir reported that lightning struck and killed all 11 members of a football team during a match in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo, while leaving the opposing team unscathed.

Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/
africa/203137.stm

Chaplinesque Insect

1996: The taxonomist Neal Evenhuis came up with the name Campsicnemus charliechaplini for a species of Hawaiian fly “in honor of the great silent movie comedian, Charlie Chaplin, because of the curious tendency of this fly to die with its midlegs in a bandy-legged position”.

Source: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/
op45-54-58.pdf

Legal Niceties

1995: Hours before his scheduled execution at Oklahoma State Penitentiary, Robert Brecheen overdosed on sedatives. The condemned murderer was taken from death row to hospital, where his stomach was pumped. Once his condition had stabilized, he was returned to prison and executed by lethal injection.

Source: The New York Times, 12 August 1995

One Thing Leads To Another

Oriental white-backed vultures feeding on a dead cow in Rajasthan, in India, photographed by Bernard Dupont

1993: In 1993 there were around 40 million vultures in India. By 2007, the population of the long-billed vulture had plummeted by nearly 97 per cent, while the oriental white-backed vulture had fared even worse, with numbers down by more than 99 per cent.

Scientists eventually linked these disastrous declines to the veterinary use of the drug diclofenac. The drug was initially developed to treat pain and inflammatory disorders in humans; from the early 1990s, Indian farmers began to use it on their livestock.

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How To Live To 135

Nikola Tesla photographed at the age of 34, a quarter of the way through his expected lifespan

1991: On his 80th birthday, in 1936, the electrical engineer and inventor Nikola Tesla informed reporters that he wiggled his toes several hundred times before he went to bed. This toned up his body, Tesla explained, so that he would live to 135. In the event, Tesla’s toes stopped wiggling long before 1991; he died in 1943, at the age of 86.

Source: W. Bernard Carlson, Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age (2013), p. 380

Millennium Candles

1999: As the year 2000 approached, computer experts warned of the havoc that could be expected from the millennium bug. Inordinate sums were spent to make computers, in the current jargon, “Y2K compliant”. In retrospect, it appears ridiculous and slightly embarrassing, but at the time, fears of widespread dislocation of the world’s computer systems seemed plausible enough.

At the end of December, rumours spread in the Philippines that not only would electronic devices be affected, but even candles and matches. Exactly how this would happen wasn’t clear. Fortunately, getting them blessed by a priest would make them Y2K compliant.

Source: Far Eastern Economic Review, 13 January 2000

Nuclear Test Ban

1998: Britain’s Nuclear Explosions (Prohibition and Inspections) Act 1998 made it illegal to cause a nuclear explosion:

“Any person who knowingly causes a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for life.”

Source: www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/
1998/7/pdfs/ukpga_19980007_en.pdf